Efectos adversos de la radiación cósmica en personal aeronáutico: Revisión Sistemática

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4321/s0465-546x2023000300004

Palabras clave:

radiación cósmica; rayos cósmicos; efectos adversos; personal aeronáutico

Resumen

Introducción: El personal de vuelo y astronautas estan sometidos a exposición ocupacional a radiación cósmica que podría producir la aparición de efectos patológicos. Hasta el momento, la evidencia disponible se orienta al estudio de patologías específicas sin recoger todos los posibles efectos adversos.

Método: Revisión sistemática (RS) de la literatura publicada hasta enero 2023. Las bases de datos consultadas fueron PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS y Cochrane. Los descriptores utilizados fueron “Adverse effects”, “Cosmic Radiation”, y “Aeronautic”. Se incluyeron estudios con información sobre eventos adversos de la radiación cósmica en trabajadores expuestos. Se evaluó la calidad de la evidencia.

Resultados: Se incluyeron 27 estudios (11 RS y 16 observacionales). Algunos estudios encontraron que los trabajadores aeronáuticos tenían mayor riesgo neoplásico (cáncer de mama, cerebro, leucemia y melanoma) y de cataratas nucleares. Sin embargo, otros estudios no describieron el desarrollo de enfermedades neoplásicas ni otras patologías estudiadas (genéticas, ginecológicas o cardiovasculares) por radiaciones ionizantes. La calidad de las RS (AMSTAR–2) fue críticamente baja en la mayoría, y los estudios observacionales (STROBE) obtuvieron una media de alrededor del 72%.

Conclusiones: La evidencia disponible no permite encontrar causalidad directa entre exposición a radiación cósmica y aparición de patologías en personal expuesto. Se consideran necesarios nuevos estudios bien diseñados.

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Publicado

30-09-2023

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Ortiz-Ortiz MT, Romero-Aguirre AC, Olivier Morillo V, Gonzales-Alvarado FR. Efectos adversos de la radiación cósmica en personal aeronáutico: Revisión Sistemática. Med Segur Trab [Internet]. 30 de septiembre de 2023 [citado 20 de mayo de 2024];69(272):160-86. Disponible en: //revista.isciii.es/index.php/MST/article/view/1338

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