Revisión Sistemática - Intervenciones en el proceso de Retorno al Trabajo en los Trastornos Mentales Comunes

Autores/as

  • Gaetano Pepe Betancourt Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo, Madrid
  • Ana Cristina Brand P Sante Fe College of Gainesville, Florida

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4321/s0465-546x2021000300006

Palabras clave:

Salud mental; absentismo; costos de atención en salud; retorno al trabajo

Resumen

Introducción: Los trastornos mentales comunes (TMC), causan sufrimiento individual y menoscabo significativo a la salud, tienen un impacto negativo en el bienestar del individuo, las circunstancias financieras y a la sociedad. La respuesta de los médicos ha sido otorgar la incapacidad con la finalidad de mitigar los síntomas. Pero el dilema que entraña esta respuesta es que el reposo es beneficioso sólo si mantiene un equilibrio funcional del paciente y el retorno al trabajo. Bajo este enfoque, se plantea que las intervenciones psicosociales permiten preparar al individuo para retornar al trabajo. 

Método: el diseño de esta revisión es de alcance descriptivo y de enfoque mixto. La búsqueda se realizó a partir de: PubMed/MEDLINE, ELSEVIER, SciELO, Academic Google. El criterio de temporalidad fueron artículos publicados en los últimos 5 años, desde el 06 de diciembre y finalizo el 30 de diciembre del 2019.

Resultados: se analizaron 28 artículos a texto completo, la evidencia científica se sustentó en 13 estudios controlados. Se encontró evidencia de calidad moderada de que las intervenciones aplicadas mejoran los síntomas y reducen el número de días de incapacidad en pacientes con TMC. Nivel de evidencia B de GRADE.

Conclusiones: las intervenciones psicosociales facilitan un retorno al trabajo saludable y sostenible. Sin embargo, para que esto suceda, estas deben dirigirse no solo al individuo con incapacidad para trabajar, sino también a la interacción de este con su lugar de trabajo.

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Publicado

25-02-2022

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1.
Betancourt GP, Brand P AC. Revisión Sistemática - Intervenciones en el proceso de Retorno al Trabajo en los Trastornos Mentales Comunes. Med Segur Trab [Internet]. 25 de febrero de 2022 [citado 24 de mayo de 2024];67(264):212-31. Disponible en: //revista.isciii.es/index.php/MST/article/view/1187

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