Análisis de alteraciones cromosómicas estructurales y su distribución por cromosomas en la serie de recién nacidos con defectos congénitos del ECEMC / Analysis of the structural chromosomal anomalies and distribution by chromosomes in the ECEMC’s series of newborn infants with congenital defects
Palabras clave:Alteraciones cromosómicas estructurales, distribución, cromosomas, ECEMC / Structural chromosomal alterations, distribution, chromosomes, ECEMC
ResumenThis study was aimed at estimating the frequency of unbalanced structural chromosomal anomalies identified in the consecutive series of newborn infants with congenital defects, registered in the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC). These cases were cytogenetically studied at its laboratory since 1981 up to December 2009. A total of 4,681 cases were studied following a protocol established by ECEMC program, which starts by performing a high resolution karyotype (550-850 bands), and if the results are normal, it is followed by the analysis of subtelomeric regions and depending on the clinical manifestations, some FISH and MLPA analyses were applied in order to also rule out microdeletion syndromes. The parents and other relatives were also studied when necessary, according to ECEMC’s protocol. A total of 136 cases had unbalanced chromosomal structural anomalies. Data were analyzed either globally or in two periods including the years 1981-1994, and 1995-2009 which are before and after starting the use of FISH techniques in the ECEMC`s laboratory. Among the 136 total cases having unbalanced structural anomalies, 71.32% were cytogenetically detected, and the remaining 28.68% by FISH. Each type of anomaly was distributed by involved chromosome separating those affecting p and q arms. In the group of cytogenetically detected anomalies, deletions (42.55% of cases) were 2.1 times more frequent than duplications (20.22%). Deletions affecting short arms were 3 times more frequent than duplications. Among cases detected by FISH techniques, deletions were 15.49 times more frequent than duplications, the 22q11.2 microdeletion being the most common (38.46% of the cases), followed by the deletions in chromosomes 15 (15.38%) and 4 (10.26%). Some of these alterations were identified by the clinical suspicion of their specific syndromes (Wolf-Hirschhorn, Prader-Willi, Williams-Beuren, Miller-Dieker, etc), and this could somehow bias their frequencies (see Table 3). In addition, some other unexpected microdeletion syndromes were detected such as two cases with microdeletion 1p36, one case with each of the following microdeletions: 2q23.1, 5q31, and a deletion 12q13.3-q21.2, including the region of the known microdeletion syndrome 12q14, but it is possible that may be other not hitherto identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the first one analyzing the frequency of chromosomal alterations globally and by each one of the 23 chromosomes on a consecutive series of newborn infants with congenital defects which are detectable during the first three days of life. It is also remarkable that all the cases were studied with the same protocol and the same team of specialists.
II. Citogenética y Genética molecular